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MCAT Quiz Categories

MCAT E-Placement Test

The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) เป็นแบบทดสอบมาตรฐานสำหรับผู้ที่ต้องการเรียนต่อในโรงเรียนแพทย์ในประเทศสหรัฐอเมริกาและแคนาดา ซึ่งดำเนินการจัดสอบและบริหารโดยสมาคมวิทยาลัยแพทย์อเมริกัน (AAMC)

แบบทดสอบทั้งหมด 88 ข้อ (ไม่จับเวลา)
-MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills (14 ข้อ)
-MCAT Psychology & Sociology (14 ข้อ)
-MCAT Physic & Math (12 ข้อ)
-MCAT Biology (13 ข้อ)
-MCAT Biochemistry (11 ข้อ)
-MCAT General Chemistry (12 ข้อ)
-MCAT Organic Chemistry (12 ข้อ)

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 1

Question

1. We can justifiably infer from this passage that the appearance of Willis Reed at the seventh game of the Lakers-Knicks playoff in 1970:

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 1

Question

2. As it is used in the context of the passage, word

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 1

Question

3. Which of the following would most undermine Koppett's position on the difference between basketball and other sports like football and baseball?

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 1

Question

4. The author most likely compares basketball to jazz primarily in order to:

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 1

Question

5. The primary purpose of the passage is most nearly:

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 1

Question

6. The role of the individual athlete during a basketball game as described by the author is most analogous to:

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 1

Question

7. The author describes the reaction of the coach in paragraph 3 in order to do all of the following EXCEPT:

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 2

Question

1. Which of the following statements best expresses the main point of the passage?

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 2

Question

2. It is reasonable to infer from the passage that D. H.
Lawrence:

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 2

Question

3. In the context of the passage, the word "vigorous" most nearly signifies:

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 2

Question

4. According the passage, the relationship of Franklin's writing style to his ideas is most analogous to which of the following?

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 2

Question

5. The authors probably quote Franklin in paragraph 2 in order to:

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 2

Question

6. Which of the following statements, if true, would most call into question the authors' characterization of Benjamin Franklin's attitude towards religion?

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MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
Passage 2

Question

7. It may be inferred from the passage that each of the following describes Benjamin Franklin's writings
EXCEPT:

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

1. Which imaging technique is best suited for measuring changes in brain activity that require the highest possible spatial resolution?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

2. In an experiment, primates are injected with a newly synthesized chemical compound. Which of the following observed effects would provide the best evidence that the drug is a stimulant that is pharmacologically active in these primates?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

3. Which of the following structures of the human brain is LEAST likely to show increased activity when an extremely thirsty experimental participant drinks a glass of water?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

4. A lesion which of these areas most adversely affects an individual's vision?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

5. Of the following, which neurotransmitter and hormone pair is most reliably associated with aggression?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

6. Group A consists of socially anxious individuals sitting down to meet their peers on the first day of a new job.
Group B consists of non-anxious individuals listening to white noise. In which of the following areas of the brain would we expect to see the largest difference in activity between these two groups?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

7. Each of the following has been demonstrate of schizophrenics EXCEPT:

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

8.Which part of the brain initiates signals to the endocrine system?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

Question

1.Based on the information in the passage, and assuming the validity of the research hypotheses, reductions in mass to which of the following regions would be evidence of the efficacy of a therapeutic intervention?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

Question

2. Which of the following would be the most adequate substitute as a neuro imaging technique in the study of cognitive behavioral therapy?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

Question

3. Which of the following correctly describes the reinforcement schedule used in Study 3?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

Question

4. Data analysis revealed that of the three therapies, the psychoanalytic method was the least associated with the growth of the prefrontal cortex. Which of the following is a potential problem with the conclusion that psychoanalysis was the least effective of the three therapies?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

Question

5. If the hypothesis in Study 2 turned out to be correct, which of the following would most likely be the reason that the psychoanalytic psychotherapy had been effective?

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MCAT Psychology & Sociology

Question

6. Suppose the subjects in Study 3 were presented with the addictive substances for which they received treatment.
If the treatment was effective, one would expect measurements to show LESS cortical mass in each of the following, EXCEPT:

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MCAT Physic & Math

1. The linear thermal expansion of a metal rod is given by
𝚫L = 𝛼L0𝚫T. By how many degrees Celsius would the temperature of a rod have to increase for the rod's length to increase by 20%?

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MCAT Physic & Math

2. An amount of heat 𝒬is added to a system. Which of the following can result?
I. Its temperature increases.
II. Its phase changes.
III. It undergoes isothermal expansion.

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MCAT Physic & Math

3. An expanding spring pushes a rigid cylinder of gas across a horizontal frictionless table. Consider the system to be the gas inside the cylinder. Which of the following sets of relations best describes what happens?

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MCAT Physic & Math

4. During adiabatic compression of a gas the temperature:

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MCAT Physic & Math

5. A closed system consisting of a balloon expands by 5 x 10-2 L at constant temperature in an environment with a pressure of 1.0 x 105 Pa. What is the value of heat transfer in this process?

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MCAT Physic & Math

6.In the thermodynamic cycle shown below, the processes connecting points 2 and 3 and points 1 and 4 are adiabatic. What statement below is true?

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MCAT Physic & Math

Question

1. Experiment 4 is an example of an adiabatic process, Which of the following will always be true of an adiabatic process?

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MCAT Physic & Math

Question

2. How do the pressure and volume of the gas change as a result of the procedures in Experiment 2?

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MCAT Physic & Math

Question

3. Which of the following best describes how the pressure and volume of the gas change as a res
Experiment 3?

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MCAT Physic & Math

Question

4. The student repeats Experiment 1 with a different cylinder and piston and finds that the volume increases from 0.025 m3 to 0.1 m3 at a constant pressure of 40 kPa, What is the value of W?

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MCAT Physic & Math

Question

5. Let 𝒬3 and 𝒬4 denote the value of the heat transferred in Experiments 3 and 4, respectively, and let𝚫E3 and 𝚫E4 represent the change in the internal energy of the gas in Experiments 3 and 4, respectively. Which one of the following statements is true?

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MCAT Physic & Math

Question

6. After Experiment 4 is completed, the student places a 200-gram block on top of the piston, which pushes it down by 5 cm. As a result, the student should find that the internal energy of the gas:

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MCAT Biology

1. A competitive inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase IlI would have the greatest effect on:

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MCAT Biology

2. In the lac operon, transcription is regulated by a repressor protein and only takes place in the presence of lactose.Which of the following statements is correct?

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MCAT Biology

3. Which of the following could not be caused by a single point mutation in the DNA?

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MCAT Biology

4. Which of the following is/are true with respect to eukaryotic mRNA?
I. Monocistronic
Il.Transcription stops at the stop codon
III.Has the same sequence as the template DNA that it was transcribed from

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MCAT Biology

5. Which of the following is NOT a similarity between replication and transcription?

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MCAT Biology

6. Which of the following functions is NOT typically attributed to small nuclear RNA (snRNA)?

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MCAT Biology

7. Organisms with a higher degree of complexity do not necessarily have more diverse genomes than less complex organisms, in spite of the need for a greater diversity of proteins. Post-translational modification is one method used by more complex organisms to produce proteins that serve a wider variety of distinct functions.

Which of the following explains this phenomenon?

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MCAT Biology

Question

1. Based on information in the passage, genes codings, particularly abundant proteins in a cell would hard the following EXCEPT:

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MCAT Biology

Question

2. Which of the following could account for the changes brought on by silent mutations in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
I. Decrease in mRNA half-life
Il. Disruption of splicing sites
III. Changes in mRNA folding

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MCAT Biology

Question

3. Researchers studying a gene associated with breast cancer found that regions where silent mutations occur ("silent sites*) in this gene evolve very slowly compared to other regions within this gene. Comparisons were made between mice and humans. Which of the following is most likely true about this gene?

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MCAT Biology

Question

4. Researchers studying the DNA polymerase activity in several different organisms discovered a mutant E. coli polymerase that retained almost 100% of wild-type activity. Which of the following active-site missense mutations is LEAST likely to affect enzyme activity?

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MCAT Biology

Question

5. Point mutations are found in three subclasses: nonsense mutations, missense mutations, and silent mutations.
Which of the following represents a silent mutation?

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MCAT Biology

Question

6. How could changing the half-life of an mRNA lead to phenotypic changes?

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MCAT Biochemistry

1. Which of the following best describes the function of enzymes?

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MCAT Biochemistry

2. Malate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in TCA cycle, which catalyzes the following reaction, which is unfavorable under standard conditions:

C4H6O5 + NAD+ -> C4H4O5 + NADH + H+

Which of the following corresponds to the compound that is most likely to be oxidized under standard conditions?

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MCAT Biochemistry

3. All of the following are examples of oxidation-reduction reactions EXCEPT:

I. C3H7O6P + NAD+ + Pi, -> C3H8O10P2 + NADH + H+
II. C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
III. C6H14O12Р6 -> 2 C3H7O6P

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MCAT Biochemistry

4. An acidic Glu residue in a protein (neutral in its protonated form) has a p𝑲a value of 2.3 in the wild-type protein and is found near a neutral Ile residue. What will be the effect on the p𝑲a of the Glu residue if a mutation substitutes a positively charged Lys residue for the Ile residue?

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MCAT Biochemistry

5. Which of the following best orders the relative basicity
of the side chains of Glu (p𝑲a = 4.1), Cys (p𝑲a = 8.3),and Lys (p𝑲a = 10.8)?

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MCAT Biochemistry

6. The cells in your body are constantly undergoing cellular respiration, producing CO2 as a byproduct. What would happen to the pH of your blood if you were to hold your breath?

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MCAT Biochemistry

Question

1. Based on information presented in the passage, which of the following most likely describes the outcome of replacing the distal imidazole with a nonpolar amino acid residue?

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MCAT Biochemistry

Question

2. What is the most likely effect of the addition of acid to the solution in which hemoglobin is suspended?

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MCAT Biochemistry

Question

3. Which of the following would be most likely to bind oxygen the fastest in the pulmonary vasculature?

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MCAT Biochemistry

Question

4. Thermodynamic data for the formation of the hemoglobin tetramer (i.e., association of hemoglobin dimer subunits) provide insight into the "cooperativity" of hemoglobin binding of oxygen. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true based on information in the passage?

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MCAT Biochemistry

Question

5. At body temperature, which of the following statements is likely true based on the data shown in Table 2?

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MCAT General Chemistry

1. During the electrolysis of liquid water into hydrogen and oxygen gas at standard temperature and pressure, energy
is:

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MCAT General Chemistry

2. At standard conditions, the following reaction is endothermic, and non-spontaneous:

2 NH3(g) -> N2(g) + 3 H2(g)

What change could make the reaction spontaneous?

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MCAT General Chemistry

3. Which of the following should have the highest enthalpy of vaporization?

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MCAT General Chemistry

4. A 36 gram sample of water requires 93.4 kJ to sublime.
What are the heats of fusion (ΔHfus) and vaporization(ΔHvap) for water?

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MCAT General Chemistry

5. Given the standard enthalpies of formation (ΔHf°) at 298 K for the compounds below, all of the following reactions are exothermic EXCEPT:

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MCAT General Chemistry

6. The citric acid cycle consists of reactions that break down acetate into carbon dioxide. Given that some steps are thermodynamically unfavorable, why does the cycle proceed in the forward direction overall?

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MCAT General Chemistry

7. The ΔH°, of ozone, O3 is 142.7 kJ/mol. Which of the following statements is true for the decomposition of ozone into oxygen, shown below?

2O3(g) -> 3 O2(g)

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MCAT General Chemistry

Question

1. Which of the following species is isoelectronic with the silver ion in AgCI?

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MCAT General Chemistry

Question

2. Given that the dissolution of sodium chloride is spontaneous below the saturation concentration, which of the following statements must be true?

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MCAT General Chemistry

Question

3. Which one of the salts in Table 1 has the smallest value of ΔG°diss?

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MCAT General Chemistry

Question

4. Which of the following is consistent with the differences in ΔH°diss for NaCl and LiCI?

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MCAT General Chemistry

Question

5. The transfer of heat to or from a solution changes the temperature of the solution according to the equation
9 = mcΔT where q is the heat transferred, m is the mass of solvent, and c is the specific heat of the solvent. If a 1 g sample of a salt was dissolved in 20 mL of water (specific heat = 4.18 J/g°C) in an insulated beaker and the temperature was found to decrease by 4°C, which of the following salts was used? Assume no phase change for the water.

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

1. Rank the protons from least acidic to most acidic.

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

2. Predict a possible product of the following reaction:

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

3. The enol and keto tautomers of 2-pentanone(shown below)are best described as:

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

4. Which of the following carbonyl compounds cannot undergo a self aldol condensation ?

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

5. Which of the following would increase the rate of the reaction shown below?

l. Addition of acid
ll. Addition of base
lll. Increased concentration of EtOH

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

6. A reaction is performed at 20°C to form a mixture of two products, L(20%) and M(80%). When heated to 60°C and allowed to stand overnight, the composition of the mixture slowly changes to 80% L/20% M and does not change at longer reaction time. Which one of the following statements is most consistent with these observations?

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

7. Which of the following reactions presents the fastest reaction?

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

Question

1. in the first step shown in Figure 1, which of the following 1. acts as the nucleophile?

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

Question

2. The antibody described in the passage catalyzes an enantioselective Robinson annulation reaction. What is the stereochemistry of the single enantiomer that is produced?

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

Question

3. The reaction of Molecule 3 with the lysine side chain of the catalytic antibody can best be described as what type of reaction?

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

Question

4. If the first step in Figure I was carried out in NOD/ DzO, which of the following molecules would NOT be produced?

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MCAT Organic Chemistry

Question

5. An aldol condensation between which two compounds could be used to generate Molecule 1?

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      MCAT Organic Chemistry

      The Robinson annulation reaction is a widely used, multistep process for generating cyclic a, B-unsaturated ketones. The first step (known as a Michael reaction) involves conjugate addition of an enol or enolate to an o. B-unsaturated carbonyl (Molecule1). The reaction then proceeds with ring closure and loss of water (cyclodehydration) to give a cyclic a,B-unsaturated ketone (Molecule 8).
      Scientists have found a way to catalyze the Robinson annulation by using artificial enzymes made from antibodies (Zhong, et. al, (Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 8131). As shown in Figure 1, these catalytic antibodies speed up the reaction by using a lysine side chain to form an imine with Molecule 3. The imine more readily undergoes tautomerization and cyclodehydration to give Molecule 7, which is easily hydrolyzed to Molecule 8.
      An important result is that Molecule 8 is produced as a single

      enantiomer.

      MCAT General Chemistry

      The extent to which a salt dissolves in water can be quantified by its solubility product constant, (Ksp) which is defined, for a hypothetical salt Xa Yb as shown in Equation 2. The greater the value of Ksp. the more soluble the compound. The Ksp of a salt is related to the free energy of dissolution by the equationΔG°diss = – RT In(Ksp). Table 1 lists the Ksp values for some insoluble salts.

      When a solid completely dissolves, solute particles are separated and encapsulated by solvent molecules. This process requires several steps:

      1) breaking all solute-solute interactions,

      2) disrupting some solvent-solvent interactions, and

      3) forming new solute-solvent interactions.

      The combination of these processes determines the overall enthalpy change for the dissolution, which can be either exothermic or endothermic regardless of the solubility of the salt. Table 2 shows the enthalpies of dissolution for several soluble salts.

      MCAT Biochemistry

      The complexity of hemoglobin’s function is exemplified by its chemical structure. Multiple factors are believed to affect the kinetics of oxygen binding to the molecule’s active sites.

      It has been proposed that the binding of oxygen (Figure 1) reduces strain on the heme protein superstructure by counterbalancing the pull of the proximal imidazole. Similarly, increasing basicity of the proximal imidazole (e.g., through loss of a hydrogen atom) is believed to exert additional strain on the heme protein in the deoxygenated state by inducing a dome-shaped molecular structure. Because the binding of oxygen relieves this strain, increasing basicity of the proximal imidazole increases the affinity of the heme for oxygen. The hydrophobic pocket created by hydrocarbon-like residues from adjacent heme proteins are also believed to facilitate oxygenation, though it has been proposed steric hindrance may provide an antagonistic effect. The distal imidazole shown below may inhibit dissociation by stabilizing the oxygen molecule in place.

       

       

      The net effect of these and other factors affecting oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin can be expressed kinetically:

      Equation 1

      A single heme molecule will associate with O2 to form a heme-O2 complex with rate constant 𝑘’ in a reverse reaction, oxygen will dissociate from the heme-O2 complex with rate constant k. One/study examined the kinetics of association of oxygen at different oxygen-bound states as well as the
      implied equilibrium constants (K02) for each stage of oxygen association (Table 1).

       

       

      Another study examined the thermodynamics of the association of hemoglobin dimers (𝛼𝛽) to form the tetrameric hemoglobin protein.

      Figure 2 Free energy coupling for dimer-tetramer association in deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin
      Extrapolating from the respective linear models depieted in Figure 2, specific data for free energy as well as enthalpy and entropy at body temperature (310 K) are shown in Table 2.

       

       

      Adapted from Chang, C. K., and Traylor, I. G. Kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to synthetic analogs of the myoglobin and hemoglobin active sies: Sp. S. H. C. and Ackers, G. K. Thermodynamic studies on subunit assembly in human hemoglobin.

      MCAT Biology

      Protein synthesis involves a number of complex steps, from transcription of the gene through to translation and post-translational modification. After mRNA is transcribed in eukaryotes, it must be processed (capped, poly-A tailed, and spliced) before it can be translated. Prokaryotes do not need to process their mRNA.

      Due to the exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase, DNA replication is generally a high-fidelity process. Random errors occasionally occur and these mutations are classified as frameshift mutations (insertions or deletions in the base sequence) or point mutations (a single base pair change). Any mutation is subject to natural selection, with advantageous mutations preserved and the most deleterious mutations eliminated quickly. Thus, areas of the genome that appear to evolve very slowly (i.e., have a slower rate of mutation than other areas) do not actually have a slower rate; rather, that area is highly critical to normal functioning of the organism involved.

      Point mutations can be further classified by their final effect on the mature protein. Because of the redundancy of the genetic code, some mutations do not alter the final amino acid sequence of the protein and are referred to as silent mutations. However, it was discovered that all redundant codons are not equal; some are used preferentially to enhance the speed or accuracy of protein translation. tRNAs corresponding to redundant codons are not found equally in the cell, some tRNAs are more common than others. Silent mutations can cause phenotypic changes by altering mRNA stem-and-loop folding, half-life, and splicing sites. Thus, mutations formerly considered “silent” have now been implicated in a number of different disorders, such as Marfan syndrome, phenylketonuria, Seckel syndrome, and increased pain sensitivity.


      Figure 1 The Genetic Code

      MCAT Physic & Math

      Figure 1 shows a thin-walled, cylindrical metal container fitted with a tight-fitting but freely movable lightweight plastic piston and containing 0.25 mol of helium at 0°C and a pressure of
      1 atm.

      The volume, pressure, and temperature of the gas can be changed by various processes, such as by adding weights to the top of the piston or by heating the cylinder with a flame.
      The heat exchanged between the confined helium gas and the surroundings will be denoted by Q, where a positive value of 𝒬 indicates that the heat has been transferred into the gas; if O is negative, heat has been transferred out of the gas. The work done on the gas will be denoted by W, where a positive value of W indicates that the gas does work on its surroundings; if W is negative, this means that the surroundings do work on the gas. The change in the internal energy of the gas is given by the equation.

      𝚫E = 𝒬- W
      Equation 1

      A student conducts the following series of experiments in a chemistry lab.

      Experiment 1
      The student measures the volume of the gas in the cylinder, places a known mass m on top of the piston, and then increases the temperature of the gas at constant pressure to 273°C.

      Experiment 2
      After the gas is allowed to cool back to 0°C at 1 atm pressure the student locks the piston in place, and then increases the temperature of the gas to 273°C.

      Experiment 3
      After Experiment 2 is completed, the student unlocks the piston and a computer-controlled heat source maintains the temperature at a constant 273°

      Experiment 4
      After Experiment 2 is completed, the cylinder is completely wrapped in insulation before the piston is unlocked.

      MCAT Psychology & Sociology

      Recent research has explored the neurophysiological correlates of various therapies to assess their efficacy. Reduced cortical mass in areas associated with negative emotions are interpreted as indications of effective therapeutic intervention. Also, researchers looked at the mass of various regions associated with emotional regulation, such that increased mass in these regions also suggested that the therapies had helped patients improve their ability to modulate emotional experience.

      Study 1: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
      A team of researchers conducted an fMRI study that looked at activation levels in a cohort of 20 patients who were given a
      10-week treatment protocol, meeting with a psychologist for 45 minutes in each session. During sessions, participants explored maladaptive thought patterns and created a plan for more effective coping mechanisms that was encouraged by positive secondary reinforcement by the therapist at the next session.
      To track thoughts while subjects were alone during the week, participants were told to keep a journal. Pretest and posttest measures of cortical activity were measured and compared.

      Study 2: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
      An increase in cortical mass in areas associated with self-awareness and the top-down regulation of emotion was measured through the use of positron emission tomography (PET). At the end of the 3-month program, researchers saw changes in the mass of regions of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampal projections to the sensory cortices. Researchers conducted the study on 10 male and female participants who had grown up in single-parent homes, based on the premise that the absence of a parent made them good candidates for psychoanalytic therapy. Researchers hypothesized that awareness and analysis of repressed thoughts, and not emotional regulation, would mediate the effectiveness of therapy and improve clinical outcomes.

      Study 3: Behavioral Therapy
      A reinforcement schedule was paired with aversion therapy, which was used to rewire the reward circuit in individuals with various types of addiction. 18 male and female undergraduate students who had been diagnosed with alcohol and drug addiction were given treatment. The treatment involved exposure to alcohol or the drug and nasal inhalation of an aversive agent meant to induce mild nausea. Application of the aversive treatment was potentially dangerous, so it was done in a supervised clinical environment twice a week according to a schedule. Researchers also checked in once a week at random times to see if patients had successfully avoided drug or alcohol use and gave points that could be used towards various prizes if they had. Afterward, dopaminergic circuits and the density of regions associated with impulse control were assessed.

      MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
      Passage 2

      It is not easy to define Benjamin Franklin’s religious and moral beliefs; yet it is important to do so, because they are representative of a large body of men of his time, whose worldly success certainly derived from their beliefs. D. H. Lawrence, who was angered by all success, treats Franklin as a hypocrite who found the rules which lead to success and turned them into a religion. This analysis is certainly false, but even if it were true, it would not take us far enough. For it would not tell us what made Franklin respected by men as different as his American friends, his English enemies, and his French admirers. There was something in Franklin’s beliefs which had a symbolic quality for them all.

      The charge that Franklin was a hypocrite can be presented simply. He advocated many virtues at a time when he undoubtedly lapsed into some vices. He began his marriage in 1730 by bringing an illegitimate son into the house. Indeed, he may never have been very vigorous in resisting the temptations of the flesh. These lapses from the conventions of family life would not have outraged D. H. Lawrence if they had not been coupled with a certain priggishness in many of the household maxims which Franklin popularized.

      In 1732, Franklin began publishing Poor Richard’s Almanac, which was by far the most successful work that he wrote, and in some ways the most influential. Like other almanacs, this is stuffed with those plums of wisdom which most people like to taste and few to digest-_”hunger never saw bad bread,” and “well done is better than well said.” It is these crystallized plums, so eminently homely and homemade, which have made Franklin’s beliefs seem commonplace. But this criticism confuses the manner in which Franklin expressed himself and expressed himself at all times with the content of his thought. Franklin had a special gift for putting a thought into a simple and earthy sentence. This is a gift of expression: a rare gift, but Franklin had it to perfection.

      The gift has a drawback, however. In this form, Franklin’s isolated thoughts do indeed wear a simple and sometimes a commonplace air. But it is a crude error to suppose therefore that the totality of Franklin’s thoughts, the system into which the isolated thoughts lock and combine, is commonplace.
      In this respect, the simplicity of Franklin’s sentences is as deceptive as the simplicity of Bertrand Russell’s, and the outlook which they make up all together is equally complex.

      The informality with which Franklin wrote and spoke is, however, just to his thought in one respect: he was opposed to formality and rigidity of belief. It is not merely that he did not care for the fine points of dogma; he thought it wrong in principle to wish to formulate religion in fine points. He did not acknowledge any sectarian monopoly of truth. For example, when, at the age of 83, he stated his belief in God, he coupled it with another belief, “that the most acceptable service we render Him is doing good to His other children.”
      At bottom, it is this tolerance in Franklin’s make-up which we must understand. He was tolerant of others because he recognized in them the same humanity that he knew in himself.

      He never hid his motives from himself, but neither did he belittle the motives of others. We should recognize him as honest because he judges others exactly as he judges himself, with a realistic and generous sense of what can be expected of human beings. Sustained by humanity, he could gain the respect of those as religiously diverse as the anticlerical Tom Paine and the evangelist George Whitfield.

      MCAT Critical Analysis & Reasoning Skills
      Passage 1

      Basketball, a game of constant movement and a thousand
      actions, is a difficult game to remember; Leonard Koppett makes this and other excellent points in All About Basketball.

      Football is a series of set plays, as clear in our minds as moves in chess; and the high drama of a baseball game is often distilled in a single pitch, catch, throw, or hit. We remember baseball and football actions as though the players were etched upon our minds like figures on a distant green. In basketball, by contrast, we remember movement, style, flair, but only occasionally a single play. Perhaps we recall the seventh game of the Lakers-Knicks playoff on May 8, 1970, after the Lakers had pounded the Knicks in the sixth game. Willis Reed was injured and out, it seemed, for the season; and we may remember Reed walking stiffly to the floor for that final game just minutes before warm-ups were concluded; remember the sustained ovation; remember his stilt jumps as he put the hirst two shots of the game through and then had to leave the game in pain; remember that the Knicks, lifted high by his courage, went on to win game seven, bringing to New York basketball a new perspective. But it is hardly ever, even here, an individual plus one remembers. A basketball game plays past like a river,like a song In basketball as in no other sport, Koppett also notes, the referee is part of the drama. Decisions of the scorer and the timer are critical and affect the outcomes of countless games every year.

      But the referee is an agent, an actor; he affects the changing tissue of the drama every instant. He cannot call every infraction, but he must control the game. He needs to gain the players’ and the crowds’ attention, respect, and emotional cohesion. Thus, referees like Pat Kennedy, Sid Borgia, and Mendy Rudolph in the NBA became better known than many of the players. Each blew the whistle in a range of different tones and styles; each had a repertoire of operatic gestures; each had an energy and physical exuberance that added to the total drama. All won respect for coolness under withering emotion.
      Basketball players are visible in every action, Koppett notes, and easily singled out by the spectators as football players are not. They handle the ball scores of times and are physically involved in every moment of offense and defense, as baseball players are not. They are subject to many more flukes than baseball or football players, for they pass and run at high speed constantly, forcing dozens of errors, breaks, and opportunities. “Don’t shoot!” the coach screams in despair, his voice trailing off to “Nice shot” as he sits down.

      Teams move in patterns, in rhythms, at high velocity; one must watch the game abstractly, not focusing on any single individual alone, but upon, as it were, the blurred and intricate designs woven by the paths through which all five together
      cast a spell upon an opposition. The eye watches five men at once, delighting in their unity, groaning at their lapses of concentration. Yet basketball moves so rapidly and so depends on the versatility of each individual in escaping from the defense intended to contain him that the game cannot be choreographed in advance. Twelve men are constantly in movement (counting two referees), the rebounds of the ball are unpredictable, the occasions for passing or dribbling or shooting must be decided instantaneously; basketball players must be improvisers. They have a score, a melody; each team has its own appropriate tempo, a style of game best suited to its talents; but within and around that general score, each individual is free to elaborate as the spirit moves him.
      Basketball is jazz: improvisatory, free, individualistic, corporate, sweaty, fast, exulting, screeching, torrid, explosive, exquisitely designed for letting first the trumpet, then the sax, then the drummer, then the trombonist soar away in virtuosic excellence.

      The point to stress is the mythic line of basketball: a game of fake and feint and false intention; a game of run, run, run; a game of feet, of swift decision, instantaneous reversal, catlike “moves”, cool accuracy, spring and jump. The pace is hot. The rhythm of the game beats with the seconds: a three-second rule, a ten-second rule, a rule to shoot in twenty-four seconds. Only when the ball goes out of bounds, or a point is scored, or a foul is called does the clock stop; the play flows on. Teams do not move by timeless innings as in baseball, nor by set, formal, single plays as in football. Even when a play is called or a pattern is established, the game flows on until a whistle blows, moving relentlessly as lungs heavy and legs weary. It is like jazz.